Electricity in a
Resource-Based Economy

It will be assembled from the surrounding space and used in stand-alone gadgets and devices WITHOUT NEEDING CHARGING or EXTERNAL POWER SUPPLY. Only environmentally friendly and nature-like technologies.

The idea of harnessing ambient energy in the form of light, vibration, heat, radio waves, etc. is becoming more popular and attractive. As we said earlier: "Energy is everywhere and it is unlimited. Our task is only to transform it and use it for our needs."

Today we will get a little acquainted with quantum energy and talk about Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENG). It is an energy harvesting technology that relies on the coupling effects of contact electrification and electrostatic induction between two solids or a liquid and a solid (materials with different densities). Their varieties have been multiplying since 2014. By 2021, various types of Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENGs) have been widely demonstrated for use as self-powered energy collectors and sensors and are at the forefront of alternative energy technologies.

Despite the fact that the principles of operation of these devices are not entirely clear even to the inventors, and the effectiveness of these devices is not yet very high, and the safety of some of them still leaves questions. Despite all this, these devices are showing impressive results and increase the chances that such models of power generators of the smallest size can become a new source of renewable energy.
The triboelectric effect is the phenomenon of the appearance of electric charges in some materials when they rub against each other. This effect is essentially a manifestation of contact electrification, which has been known to mankind since antiquity.

Thales Miletsky observed this phenomenon in experiments with an amber stick rubbed with wool. By the way, the very word "electricity" originates from there, because in translation from Greek the word "electron" means amber.

In this article, we will look at 4 options for nanogenerators:

1.
1.
Water. Collects the energy of the falling water.
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2.
Wind. Gathers energy from simple wind.
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3.
Contact. For smart clothing applications.
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4.
Electromagnetic. Collects energy from electromagnetic waves from the surrounding space.
An example of technology implementation in neurosurgery
An example of technology implementation in neurosurgery
Autonomous devices based on quantum and graphene energy technologies
ENERGY OF FALLING WATER

Energy from a drop of water

Triboelectric nanogenerators can harvest the energy of falling water. A research team led by scientists from the City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has developed a Droplet Electric Generator (DEG), which could be a new source of renewable and extremely cheap energy.

In the long term, the new design can be applied and installed on a variety of surfaces where liquid is in contact with a solid, in order to fully utilize the low frequency kinetic energy of water. It can be applied on the surface of a ferry hull, shoreline, up to the surface of umbrellas, or even inside water bottles.

More details:
https: //naukatehnika.com/triboelektricheskie-nanog ...
https: //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs / ...

"A drop of water generates energy for 100 LED bulbs"

"Rains can be a source of electrical energy"


ENERGY FROM SIMPLE WIND

Harvesting wind energy

Researchers have developed a "tiny wind turbine" that captures wind energy that is as light as the wind generated by a brisk walk.
According to researchers in the journal Cell Reports Physical Science, the device can power up to 100 LED bulbs, as well as temperature sensors with energy from light winds such as those generated by brisk walks.

The scientists' immediate goal is to make it more efficient in order to provide uninterrupted and stable power supply to small mobile devices by developing a coin-sized nanogenerator. The second goal is to complement wind turbines to cope with winds they currently cannot reach, i.e. to increase the power of the device to 1000 watts so that it can compete with traditional wind turbines and place these devices where traditional wind turbines are not available. for example in the mountains or on the rooftops to provide sustainable energy.

Unlike turbines, which use coils and magnets, where costs are fixed, the new design allows for the selection of inexpensive and affordable materials. The miniature generator can also be used safely in nature reserves or cities because it has no rotating parts.

More details:
https: //www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/09/tiny-devic ...
https: //www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/sep/2 ...
The researchers say the device can generate sustainable energy from a breeze.
ENERGY FROM TOUCH

Contact mode

Technology was being developed for use in smart clothing. Converts movement into stored energy. The accumulated electricity can then be used to power mobile phones or other devices.

A new model is presented, which comprehensively explains the principles of operation of contact mode triboelectric nano-generators (TENG) based on Maxwell's equations.

This technology can be applied to more than just clothing, it can be integrated into the sidewalk, so when people are constantly walking on it, it can store electricity, which can then be used to power strip lamps or in the tires of a car so that they can power the car.

More details: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/201....!divAbstract
Fig. 1 (a) The electric field distribution perpendicular to an infinitely large charged sheet. (b) The overall electric field resulting from two oppositely charged infinitely large layers, and, (c) deriving the expression for the overall electric field originating from two oppositely charged surfaces. (d) The structure and the charge distribution of a typical contact-mode TENG.
ENERGY FROM ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Collector of energy from electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic waves contain energy, and there have been several methods used to generate this power, up to crystal radios a century ago that used their energy to work from the radio waves they were receiving.

The researchers published the results in Nature and demonstrated so far modest advances in obtaining energy from Wi-Fi signals, developed a thin and flexible rectenna (antenna for collecting radio waves) - just a few atoms thick.

Wi-Fi energy is collected as AC, collected by a semiconductor made from molybdenum disulfide combined with a Wi-Fi antenna range, and converted into usable DC energy. The team reports that 40 μW of power can be obtained from a typical 150 μW Wi-Fi signal, which is almost 30 percent, and in the future 50 or more.

More details: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-0892-1
Fig. 1 | Flexible rectenna based on a 2D self-aligned MoS2-heterostructure Schottky diode. a, Schematic of a lateral Schottky diode based on a MoS2 semiconducting–metallic (2H–1T/1T′) phase junction. The gold layer forms an Ohmic contact with metallic (1T/1T′) MoS2, which also forms an Ohmic contact with semiconducting (2H) MoS2. The palladium layer forms a Schottky contact with semiconducting (2H) MoS2. The antenna converts electromagnetic radiation in the Wi-Fi band into an a.c. signal. The lateral MoS2 diode is fast enough to rectify the a.c. signal and generate a d.c. signal to power a load at its output. The blue and red arrows indicate a.c. and d.c. currents, respectively. Inset, scanning electron microscopy image of a MoS2 Schottky rectifier. Channel width, 40 μm. b, The d.c. I–V characteristics of the MoS2 Schottky diode in the logarithmic scale. Inset, band diagram of the MoS2 Schottky junction under forward bias V. Φbi is the built-in potential of the MoS2 Schottky diode, e is the electron charge and EFindicates the Fermi level of the semiconductingMoS2. c, Currentresponsivity of the MoS2 Schottky diode at different external bias points.
Cranial Drill
Investigations on Piezo Active Layer of Low Frequency Cantilever Structured Vibration Energy Harvester for Cordless Cranial Drill
QUANTUM ENERGY

Graphene energy technologies

The mechanical and electronic properties of two-dimensional materials make them promising for use in flexible electronics. Their atomic thickness and the possibility of large-scale fusion could lead to the development of "smart skin" that can transform ordinary objects into an intelligent distributed sensor network.

However, while many important components of such a distributed electronic system have already been demonstrated (for example, transistors, sensors and memory devices based on two-dimensional materials), new discoveries await us: an efficient, flexible and always working energy harvesting solution that is necessary for autonomous systems.

Earlier, we wrote about technologies for processing all types of waste into graphene, included by developers in a global public initiative for the transition to a resource-based economy. More productive and practical energy technologies developed on the basis of graphene for a resource-based economy will be discussed in more detail in one of the following posts.